Sonia Gera, Sunitha Sampathi* and Sujatha Dodoala Pages 904 - 916 ( 13 )
Background: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by progressive bone loss due to aging and menopause in women leading to bone fragility with increased susceptibility towards fractures. The silent disease weakens the bone by altering its microstructure and mass. Therapy is based on either promoting strength (via osteoblast action) or preventing disease (via osteoclast action). Current therapy with different drugs belonging to antiresorptive, anabolic and hormonal classification suffers from poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile.
Objectives: Nanoparticles provide breakthrough as an alternative therapeutic carrier and biomedical imaging tool in bone diseases. The current review highlights bone physiology and pathology along with potential applications of nanoparticles in osteoporosis through use of organic and inorganic particles for drug delivery, biomedical imaging as well as bone tissue regeneration therapy.
Results: Inorganic nanoparticles of gold, cerium, platinum and silica have effects on osteoblastic and osteoclastic lineage. Labelling and tracking of bone cells by quantum dots and gold nanoparticles are advanced and non-invasive techniques. Incorporation of nanoparticles into the scaffolds is a more recent technique for improving mechanical strength as well as regeneration during bone grafting.
Conclusions: Promising results by in vitro and in vivo studies depicts effects of nanoparticles on biochemical markers and biomechanical parameters during osteoporosis suggesting the bright future of nanoparticles in bone applications. Any therapy which improves the drug profile and delivery to bone tissue will be promising approach. Superparamagnetic, gold, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and quantum dots provide golden opportunities for biomedical imaging by replacing the traditional invasive radionuclide techniques.
Bone regeneration, drug delivery, metallic NPs, nanoparticles, nanotechnology, osteoporosis.
Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad-500037, Department of pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical technology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh