Mohammed N. Khan, Yusuf A. Haggag, Majella E. Lane, Paul A. McCarron and Murtaza M. Tambuwala* Pages 286 - 295 ( 10 )
Background: The anti-cancer potential of curcumin, a natural NFκβ inhibitor, has been reported extensively in breast, lung and other cancers. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin is enhanced when formulated in a nanoparticulate carrier. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin at the molecular level in the hypoxic tumour micro-environment is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of action of curcumin formulated as nanoparticles in in vitro models of breast and lung cancer under an hypoxic microenvironment.
Methods: Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (NP), loaded with curcumin (cur-PLGA-NP), were fabricated using a solvent evaporation technique to overcome solubility issues and to facilitate intracellular curcumin delivery. Cytotoxicity of free curcumin and cur-PLGA-NP was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines using migration, invasion and colony formation assays. All treatments were performed under an hypoxic micro-environment and whole cell lysates from controls and test groups were used to determine the expression of HIF-1α and p65 levels using ELISA assays.
Results: A ten-fold increase in solubility, three-fold increase in anti-cancer activity and a significant reduction in the levels of cellular HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) were observed for cur-PLGA-NP, when compared to free curcumin.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that curcumin can effectively lower the elevated levels of HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) in breast and lung cancer cells under an hypoxic tumour micro-environment when delivered in nanoparticulate form. This applied means of colloidal delivery could explain the improved anti-cancer efficacy of curcumin and has further potential applications in enhancing the activity of anti-cancer agents of low solubility.
Nanotechnology, hypoxia, anti-cancer, curcumin, PLGA, intracellular delivery.
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saad Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tanta, Tanta, UCL School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saad Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saad Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA