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Brain Targeted Intranasal Zaleplon Nano-emulsion: In-Vitro Characterization and Assessment of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Rabbits’ Brain and Plasma at Low and High Doses

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Eman Abd-Elrasheed, Sara Nageeb El-Helaly*, Manal M. EL-Ashmoony and Salwa Salah   Pages 898 - 906 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Zaleplon is a pyrazolopyrimidin derivative hypnotic drug indicated for the short-term management of insomnia. Zaleplon belongs to Class II drugs, according to the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS), showing poor solubility and high permeability. It undergoes extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism after oral absorption, with only 30% of Zaleplon being systemically available. It is available in tablet form which is unable to overcome the previous problems.

Objective: The aim of this study is to enhance solubility and bioavailability via utilizing nanotechnology in the formulation of intranasal Zaleplon nano-emulsion (ZP-NE) to bypass the barriers and deliver an effective therapy to the brain.

Method: Screening studies were carried out wherein the solubility of zaleplon in various oils, surfactants( S) and co-surfactants(CoS) were estimated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed and various nano-emulsion formulations were prepared. These formulations were subjected to thermodynamic stability, in-vitro characterization, histopathological studies and assessment of the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) level in plasma and brain in rabbits compared to the market product (Sleep aid®).

Results: Stable NEs were successfully developed with a particle size range of 44.6±3.4 to 136.9±1.6 nm.

Conclusion: A NE composed of 10% Miglyol® 812, 40% Cremophor® RH40 40%Transcutol® HP and 10% water successfully enhanced the bioavailability and brain targeting in the rabbits, showing a three to four folds increase than the marketed product.

Keywords:

Zaleplon, intranasal nano-emulsion, in-vitro release, in-vivo studies, brain targeting, GABA measurement.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Ahram Canadian University, 6th of October City, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo

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