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Topical Botulinum Toxin: A Non-invasive Way for Treatment of Muscle Disorders

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 10 ]


Parvaneh Saffarian and Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi*   Pages 1375 - 1380 ( 6 )


Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a toxin that inhibits the release of stimulatory neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) at the neuromuscular synapses. In recent years, many patients with muscle contraction disorders have greatly benefited from the therapeutic ability of this biological drug. On the other hand, the injection of this bio drug is accompanied by some side effects such as irritation, bruising, inflammation, pain, bleeding at the site of injection. Recently, a tendency has been observed among scientists to create new techniques to offer conventional injectable drugs the ability of transdermal delivery. Such promising drugs can be applied in various forms from gel, cream, and ointments to ready-to-use pads. This would eliminate a need for high drug doses to release the drug gradually at the site of application while at the same time, lower the side effects. Here, we discuss the possibility of noninvasive administration of BoNT/A in order to reduce the side effects of drug injection.


Botulinum neurotoxin, topical drug, recombinant protein, stimulatory neurotransmitter, neuromuscular synapses, muscle disorders.


Department of Biology, School of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

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