Kaleem Ullah, Muhammad Sohail, Abdul Mannan, Haroon Rashid, Aamna Shah, Ghulam Murtaza and Shujaat Ali Khan* Pages 242 - 253 ( 12 )
Objective: The study describes the development of chitosan-based (AMPS-co-AA) semi-IPN hydrogels using free radical polymerization technique.
Methods: The resulting hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The successful crosslinking of chitosan, 2- acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), and acrylic acid (AA) was confirmed by FT IR. Unloaded and drug-loaded hydrogels exhibited higher thermal stability after crosslinking compared to the individual components. XRD confirmed the decrease in crystallinity after hydrogel formation and molecular dispersion of oxaliplatin (OXP) in the polymeric network. SEM showed rough, vague and nebulous surface resulting from crosslinking and loading of OXP.
Results: The experimental results revealed that swelling and drug release were influenced by the pH of the medium being low at acidic pH and higher at basic pH. Increasing the concentration of chitosan and AA enhanced the swelling, drug loading and drug release while AMPS was found to act inversely.
Conclusion: It was confirmed that the hydrogels were degraded more by specific enzyme lysozyme as compared to the non-specific enzyme collagenase. In-vitro cytotoxicity suggested that the unloaded hydrogels were non-cytotoxic while crude drug and drug-loaded hydrogel exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HCT-116 and MCF-7. Results of acute oral toxicity on rabbits demonstrated that the hydrogels are non-toxic up to 3900 mg/kg after oral administration, as no toxicity or histopathological changes were observed in comparison to control rabbits. These pH-sensitive hydrogels appear to provide an ideal basis as a safe carrier for oral drug delivery.
Chitosan hydrochloride, pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogel, drug release, enzymatic degradation, cytotoxicity, oral tolerability.
Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Islamabad (Abbottabad campus 22060), Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Islamabad (Abbottabad campus 22060), Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Islamabad (Abbottabad campus 22060), Institut für Chemie/ Physikalische Chemie der Polymere, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120, Halle (Saale), Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Islamabad (Abbottabad campus 22060), Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Islamabad (Lahore campus), Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Islamabad (Abbottabad campus 22060)