Pataranapa Nimtrakul, Waree Tiyaboonchai* and Supaporn Lamlertthon Pages 645 - 653 ( 9 )
Background: Amphotericin B (AmB) is important for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Nowadays, only intravenous administration (IV) of AmB has been available due to its low aqueous solubility. Two forms of AmB are available. The first is Fungizone®, a mixture of AmB and sodium deoxcycholate that produces severe nephrotoxicity. The second are lipid-based formulations that reduce nephrotoxicity, but they are costly and require higher dose than Fungizone®. Thus, a cheaper delivery system with reduced AmB toxicity is required.
Objective: To develop and characterize AmB loaded-nanostructured lipid carriers (AmB-loaded NLCs) for IV administration to reduce AmB toxicity.
Methods: AmB-loaded NLCs with different solid lipids were prepared by the high-pressure homogenization technique. Their physicochemical properties and the drug release profile were examined. The molecular structure of AmB, antifungal and hemolysis activities of developed AmB-loaded NLCs were also evaluated.
Results: AmB-loaded NLCs ~110 to ~140 nm in diameter were successfully produced with a zeta potential of ~-19 mV and entrapment efficiency of ~75%. In vitro release showed fast release characteristics. AmB-loaded NLCs could reduce the AmB molecular aggregation as evident from the absorbance ratio of the first to the fourth peak showing a partial aggregation of AmB. This result suggested that AmB-loaded NLCs could offer less nephrotoxicity compared to Fungizone®. In vitro antifungal activity of AmB-loaded NLCs showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.25 µgmL-1.
Conclusion: AmB-loaded NLCs present high potential carriers for effective IV treatment with prolonged circulation time and reduced toxicity.
Amphotericin B, nanostructure lipid carriers, antifungal, hemolysis, solid lipid, self-aggregation, nephrotoxicity.
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 6500, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 6500, Centre of excellence in Fungal Research and Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 6500