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Microneedle-Assisted Percutaneous Transport of Magnesium Sulfate

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 2 ]


Karna B. Ghimirey and Kevin Ita*   Pages 140 - 147 ( 8 )


Objective: In vitro diffusion experiments were performed to assess the permeation of magnesium sulfate across pig skin.

Methods: The mean thickness of the dermatomed porcine skin was 648 ± 12 µm. Magnesium concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Transdermal flux of magnesium sulfate across MN-treated and untreated porcine skin was obtained from the slope of the steady-state linear portion of cumulative amount versus time curve.

Results: Statistical analysis of the results was done with Student’s t-test. The transdermal flux of magnesium sulfate across microneedle-treated porcine skin was 134.19 ± 2.4 µg/cm2/h and transdermal flux across untreated porcine skin was 4.64 ± 0.05 µg/cm2/h. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the microchannels created by a solid microneedle roller (500 µm).

Conclusion: From our confocal microscopy studies, it was evident that the 500 μm long microneedles disrupted the stratum corneum and created microchannels measuring 191 ± 37 µm. The increase in transdermal flux across the microneedle-treated skin was statistically significant compared to that of controls, i.e., without the application of microneedles. With the application of microneedles, the transdermal flux of magnesium permeated over 12 h was approximately 33-fold higher in comparison to passive diffusion across an intact stratum corneum.


Magnesium sulfate, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, transdermal flux, microneedle roller, confocal microscopy, microchannels.


College of Pharmacy Touro University, Mare Island-Vallejo California, CA 94592, College of Pharmacy Touro University, Mare Island-Vallejo California, CA 94592

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