Tarek Faris*, Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Fars K. Alanazi, Mohamed M. Badran, Afraa Mohammad Alotaibi, Hafsa Almanea, Ali S. Alqahtani and Ahmed M. Samy Pages 19 - 30 ( 12 )
Aim: This study aimed to explore an affordable technique for the fabrication of Chitosan Nanoshuttles (CSNS) at the ultrafine nanoscale less than 100 nm with improved physicochemical properties, and cytotoxicity on the MCF-7 cell line.Background: Despite several studies reported that the antitumor effect of CS and CSNS could achieve intracellular compartment target ability, no enough information is available about this issue and further studies are required to address this assumption. Objectives: The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential processing variables for the production of ultrafine CSNS (less than; 100 nm) using Box-Behnken Design factorial design (BBD). This was achieved through a study of the effects of processing factors, such as CS concentration, CS/TPP ratio, and pH of the CS solution, on PS, PDI, and ZP. Moreover, the obtained CSNS was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, morphology. In addition, hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity using Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and MCF-7 cell lines were investigated. Methods: Box-Behnken Design factorial design (BBD) was used in the analysis of different selected variables. The effects of CS concentration, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) ratio, and pH on particle size, Polydispersity Index (PDI), and Zeta Potential (ZP) were measured. Subsequently, the prepared CS nanoshuttles were exposed to stability studies, physicochemical characterization, hemocompatibility, and cytotoxicity using red blood cells and MCF-7 cell lines as surrogate models for in vivo study. Result: The present results revealed that the optimized CSNS has ultrafine nanosize, (78.3 ± 0.22 nm), homogenous with PDI (0.131 ± 0.11), and ZP (31.9 ± 0.25 mV). Moreover, CSNS has a spherical shape, amorphous in structure, and physically stable. Moreover, CSNS has biological safety as indicated by a gentle effect on red blood cell hemolysis, besides, the obtained nanoshuttles decrease MCF-7 viability. Conclusion: The present findings concluded that the developed ultrafine CSNS has unique properties with enhanced cytotoxicity, thus promising for use in intracellular organelles drug delivery.
Chitosan, nanoshuttles, Box-Benhken Design, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, drug delivery.
Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Department of Physics, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Medicinal, Aromatic, and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo