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Beneficial Effects of Liposomal Formulations of Lichen Substances: A Review


Vinay Bharadwaj Tatipamula, Ha Thi Nguyen and Biljana Kukavica*  


Lichens are commonly used as essential traditional medicines to treat various conditions, including skin disorders, wounds, digestive, respiratory, obstetric, and gynecological problems in many cultures in Africa, Asia, Europe, Haitian, Oceania, and North and South America. Lichens have been deeply investigated for their phytochemical properties, and to date, numerous compounds (also known as substances) have been successfully isolated from the extracts. However, the low solubility and bioavailability of pure lichen substances have been widely recognized as the significant issues hindering their biological applications. Recently, several groups have investigated the properties and the potential applications of lichen metabolites-based liposomal formulations and revealed a substantial improvement in their solubility, bioactivity, and toxicity in the animal. Thus, in this topical review, we aimed to provide an overview of liposomal structures, the efficacy of liposomal formulations, as well as their beneficial effects as compared to the free compounds themselves.


lichen, liposomal formulations, lichen metabolites, loaded liposomes, liposomal structures, liposomal types


Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Banja Luka, Mladena Stojanovića 2, 78000 Banja Luka

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