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Strategies to improve insulin delivery through oral route: A review

Author(s):

Rohini Bhattacharya, Asha P. Johnson, Shailesh T., Mohamed Rahamathulla and Gangadharappa H. V. *  

Abstract:


Diabetes mellitus is found to be among the most suffered and lethal diseases for mankind. Diabetes mellitus type-1 is caused by the demolition of pancreatic islets responsible for the secretion of insulin. Insulin is the peptide hormone (anabolic] that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Upon the breakdown of the natural process of metabolism, the condition leads to hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose levels]. Hyperglycemia demands outsourcing of insulin. The subcutaneous route was found to be the most stable route of insulin administration but faces patient compliance problems. Oral Insulin delivery systems are the patient-centered and innovative novel drug delivery system, eliminating the pain caused by the subcutaneous route of administration. Insulin comes in contact across various barriers in the gastrointestinal tract, which has been discussed in detail in this review. The review describes about the different bioengineered formulations, including microcarriers, nanocarriers, Self-Microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDs), Self-Nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDs), polymeric micelles, cochleates, etc. Surface modification of the carriers is also possible by developing ligand anchored bioconjugates. A study on evaluation has shown that the carrier systems facilitate drug encapsulation without tampering the properties of insulin. Carrier-mediated transport by the use of natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic polymers have shown efficient results in drug delivery by protecting insulin from harmful environment. This makes the formulation readily acceptable for a variety of populations. The present review focuses on the properties, barriers present in the GI tract, overcome the barriers, strategies to formulate oral insulin formulation by enhancing the stability and bioavailability of insulin.

Keywords:

Insulin, gastrointestinal tract, Drug delivery systems, bioavailability, Diabetes mellitus, Self-Microemulsifying drug delivery system

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru- 570015, Karnataka, Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru- 570015, Karnataka, Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru- 570015, Karnataka, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Guraiger, Abha, 62529, Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru- 570015, Karnataka



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