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A brief review of the essential role of nanovehicles for improving the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological agents against tumours

Author(s):

Nitin Gupta, Virendra Yadav and Rakesh Patel*  

Abstract:


Cancer is the leading cause of death globally. There are several differences between cancer cells and normal cells. From all the therapies, chemotherapy is the most prominent therapy to treat cancer. However, the conventional drug delivery that is used to deliver poorly aqueous soluble chemotherapeutic agents has several obstacles such as whole-body distribution, rapid excretion, degradation before reaching the infected site, side effects, etc. Nanoformulation of these aqueous insoluble agents is the emerging delivery system for targeted and increasing solubility. Among all the three methods (physical, chemical and biological) chemical and biological methods are mostly used for the synthesis of nanovehicles (NVs) of different sizes, shapes and dimensions. A passive targeting delivery system in which NVs supports the pharmacological agents (drugs/genes) is a good way for resolving the obstacles with a conventional delivery system. It enhances the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological agents (drugs/genes). These NVs have several specific characters like small size, large surface area to volume ratio, surface functionalization, etc. However, this delivery is not able to deliver site-specific delivery of drugs. An active targeting delivery system in which pharmacological agents are loaded on NVs to attack directly on cancer cells and tissues is a superior way for delivering the pharmacological agents compared to a passive targeting delivery system. Various targeting ligands have been investigated and applied for targeting the delivery of drugs such as sugar, vitamin, antibodies, protein, peptides, etc. These targeted ligand supports to guide the NVs accumulated directly on the cancer cells with a higher level of cellular internalization compared to passive targeting and conventional delivery system.

Keywords:

Targeted delivery system, nanovehicles, cancer cells, active targeting, passive targeting, pharmacological agents (drugs/genes).

Affiliation:

School of Nano Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar- 382030, Gujarat, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur- 341503, Rajasthan, Shree S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Ganpat University, Mehsana- 384012, Gujarat



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