A. Nanda, S. Nanda and N. M. Khan Ghilzai Pages 233 - 242 ( 10 )
Transdermal drug delivery using patches offers many advantages, but is limited primarily by the stratum corneum barrier. Amongst the various methods to overcome this barrier, physical methods are gaining in popularity and commercial devices development. Macroflux™, MTS™ and Silex™ are based on microporation, involving use of microneedles that pierce thereby bypassing the stratum corneum. Intraject™, Powderject™ and Helios™ are based on needleless jet injectors wherein very fine, solid particulate drug, is fired directly into the skin, using high-pressure gas. Med- Tats™ incorporate use of modified drug-containing tattoos, which bind to the skin, wherein the drug is absorbed. CHADD™ is based on use of heat, which increases skin - permeation of drugs. High-power, pulsed lasers transmit positive mechanical forces to the skin and create intercellular channels into the skin transiently. Sonophoresis involves use of ultrasound, which transiently disrupts the stratum corneum barrier. This technique offers a non-invasive transdermal extraction of interstitial fluids of sampling body fluids. Modified Liposomes include Ethosomes (containing alcohol) and Transferosomes (containing surfactants), which have enhanced skin permeability. Pulsed magnetic fields may create transient pores in cell membranes, including skin, resulting in increased permeation. Iontophoresis is based on application of electric potential for enhancing the movement of substances to and from the body. Dupel™, Ionzyme™, Liposite™, ETrans™, Phoresor™ and Drionic™ are based on iontophoresis. GlucoWatch™ offers non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, based on reverse iontophoresis. This review outlines recent commercial developments in physical transdermal drug delivery technology and the specific devices and applications being targeted by the pharmaceutical industry.
Transdermal, Microporation, Jet Injectors, Heat, Laser, Sonophoresis, Liposomes and Iontophoresis
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana - 124 001,India.