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Formulation and Evaluation of Extended Release Asymmetric Membrane Capsules of Atenolol

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 2 ]


Kumar Guarve and G. D. Gupta   Pages 159 - 163 ( 5 )


The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the asymmetric membrane capsule can be used to deliver a poorly water soluble drug with a pH dependent solubility such as atenolol for extended periods of time by modulating solubility with organic acid. In osmotic systems, the release rate of an excipient relative to the release rate of the drug is an important factor that determines the duration of drug release. Consequently, for maintaining the desired pH over the entire period of drug dissolution a suitable thickening and suspending agent can be incorporated. By optimizing the concentration of thickening agent, it is possible to extend the availability of pH modifier in the core to provide an osmotic driving force or solubilization over the entire delivery period, so that the desired profile can be achieved for an active agent that has lower solubility characteristics. Finally, it was observed that the release rate of atenolol was influenced by the concentration of citric acid, mannitol and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Results of scanning electron microscopy studies showed the formation of pores in the membrane from where the drug release occurred. The optimal formulation was found to be able to deliver atenolol at the rate of approximate zero-order up to 24 h, independent of pH of release media and agitation rate.


Extended release, asymmetric capsule, atenolol, pH regulating, citric acid


Guru Gobind Singh College of Pharmacy, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India.

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