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Application of 32 Full Factorial Design and Desirability Function for Optimizing The Manufacturing Process for Directly Compressible Multi-Functional Co-Processed Excipient

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 6 ]


Jalpa Patel and Dhaval Mori*   Pages 523 - 539 ( 17 )


Background: Developing a new excipient and obtaining its market approval is an expensive, time-consuming and complex process. Compared to that, the co-processing of already approved excipients has emerged as a more attractive option for bringing better characteristic excipients to the market. The application of the Design of Experiments (DoE) approach for developing co-processed excipient can make the entire process cost-effective and rapid.

Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to demonstrate the applicability of the DoE approach, especially 32 full factorial design, to develop a multi-functional co-processed excipient for the direct compression of model drug - cefixime trihydrate using spray drying technique.

Methods: The preliminary studies proved the significant effect of atomization pressure (X1) and polymer ratio (microcrystalline cellulose: mannitol - X2) on critical product characteristics, so they were selected as independent variables. The angle of repose, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, tensile strength and Kuno’s constant were selected as response variables.

Result: The statistical analysis proved a significant effect of both independent variables on all response variables with a significant p-value < 0.05. The desirability function available in Design Expert 11® software was used to prepare and select the optimized batch. The prepared co-processed excipient had better compressibility than individual excipients and their physical mixture and was able to accommodate more than 40 percent drug without compromising the flow property and compressibility.

Conclusion: The present investigation successfully proved the applicability of 32 full factorial design as an effective tool for optimizing the spray drying process to prepare a multi-functional co-processed excipient.


Co-processing, spray drying, design of experiment, desirability function, Heckel's equation, Kawakita's equation, optimization.


Department of Pharmaceutics, B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College, Rajkot, Gujarat, Department of Pharmaceutics, B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College, Rajkot, Gujarat

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