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Factors Affecting the Penetration of Niosome into the Skin, Their Laboratory Measurements and Dependency to the Niosome Composition: A Review


Bahareh Kheilnezhad and Afra Hadjizadeh*   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )


Skin, the most significant protective organ in the body, may face serious problems, including cancer, infectious diseases, etc., requiring different drugs for the treatment. However, most of these drugs have poor chemical and physical stability, and insufficient penetration through the skin layers. In recent years, with the development of nanotechnology, it has been possible to load a variety of drugs into nanocarriers, to effectively targeted drug delivery. The unique structure of niosome, presents an effective novel drug delivery system with the ability to load both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, having many potential therapeutic applications including skin treatment. However, surveying and discussing these recent, rapidly growing reported studies along with their theoretical principals is required for the full understanding and exploring the great potential of this approach in skin diseases and cosmetic treatments. To this aim, emphasis has been given to the factors affecting the penetration of niosome into the skin and their laboratory measurements and dependency to the niosome composition. In sum, longer tail surfactants for storing hydrophobic drugs and intracellular passing and surfactants with a large head group for penetrating hydrophilic drugs are more suitable. Cholesterol and oleic acid are commonly used lipids to gain more stability and permeability, respectively. The ionic component in the niosome interrupts cellular connectivity, thus making it more permeable, but it may cause relative cell toxicity. Herbal oils have been used in the structure to make the nanoparticles elastic and allow them to pass through pores without changing the size of the particles.


Niosome, Skin treatment, Skin penetration factors, Laboratory measurements, Niosomes composition, Biosurfactant


Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran

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