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Sustained Release of Verapamil Hydrochloride from Sodium Alginate Microcapsules

[ Vol. 7 , Issue. 2 ]


S. Ayesha Farhana, S. M. Shantakumar, Somashekar Shyale, Md. Shalam and Laxmi Narasu   Pages 98 - 108 ( 11 )


The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release microcapsules of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) using biodegradable polymers. For this purpose microcapsules embedded verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using sodium alginate alone and also by incorporating some co polymers like methyl cellulose(MC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), poly vinyl pyrrollidone (PVP) and xanthan gum by employing complex emulsion method of microencapsulation. Microcapsules were prepared in various core: coat ratios to know the effect of polymer and co polymers on drug release. Overall ten formulations were prepared and evaluated for flow behavior, sieve analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies, stability studies, including scanning electron microscopy and DSC. The resulting microcapsules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. The drug content in all the batches of microcapsules was found to be uniform. The release was dependeut on core: coat ratio and nature of the polymers. FTIR analysis revealed chemical integrity between Verapamil hydrochloride (VH), sodium alginate and between the copolymers. Among the four copolymers used methyl cellulose retarded the drug release more than the other three, hence the same formulation was subjected for in vivo studies. The drug release from the microcapsules was found to be following non fickian diffusion. Mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled first order kinetics. Drug diffusion co efficient and correlation co-efficient were also assessed by using various mathematical models. In vivo result analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that t max of reference and test formulations were almost same. From the study it was concluded that, sustained release Verapamil hydro chloride microcapsules could be achieved with success using sodium alginate alone and also in combination with other biodegradable polymers.


Microcapsules, Verapamil hydrochloride, Sustained release, sodium alginate Biodegradable polymers


Department of Pharmaceutics, V.L College of Pharmacy, Manik Prabhu Temple Road, Raichur, Karnataka,India- 584103.

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